The Living Cask

The Living Cask: Rediscovering an ancient hobby Keeping oak barrels at home filled with an assortment of alcoholic beverages is an ancient custom. Keeping the cask at least half full and replenishing it with “fresh stock” is called a Solera process. A traditional solera system in a cellar would have a barrel stack ranging from […]

Brewing with antifoam: is it good or bad?

Brewing with anti foam: is it good or bad? By Moritz Kallmeyer Chief Brewer of Drayman’s Microbrewery, Silverton, Pretoria, January 2013 I first read about anti foam in the book Basic Brewing Science by Dr Trevor Wainwright. He classifies it as a processing aid, meaning no traces of the additive is found in the final […]

Beer flavour terminology

BEER FLAVOUR TERMINOLOGY Class 1 – Aromatic, fragrant, floral, fruity Subclass 0130 – Estery Esters are a class of compounds that are formed by the combination of a fusel alcohol with a fatty acid, producing many powerful but pleasant fruity aromas and tastes. It is common to most fermented products, including wine and whiskey Synonyms […]

Saison

SAISON (Biere Belge Belgian Beer) By Moritz Kallmeyer Chief Brewer Drayman’s Craftbrewery, Silverton Pretoria, January 2003 Introduction & History In French-speaking Wallonia, especially the province of Hainut, they feel that their beers are overlooked and underrated. They complain that no one in Flanders has heard of their ales. It would certainly be a tragedy if […]

About Aldehydes

About Aldehydes If you look at the reactions in the conversion of glucose to alcohol and CO2 (Glycolysis pathway), you will see that phosphopyruvic acid is converted into acetaldehyde (a Glycolysis intermediate) which again is converted into ethanol. An all malt wort with OG 1048 which is used in the production of a standard beer […]

Are we perhaps drinking our beer too fresh?

Are we perhaps drinking our beer too fresh? While at my stall at the Food and Drink Festival an elderly lady brought me a dumpy bottle of beer in a shape I’ve never seen before. She asked me if I would be so kind to test this (the last bottle) of a brew her late […]

Ester Production in Yeast

Ester Production in Yeast By Moritz Kallmeyer Chief Brewer of Drayman’s Craftbrewery, Silverton Pretoria, April 2006 Introduction: The opposite of what we read is usually true regarding the increase in ester production during the growth phase. Ester production is directly related to biomass production. Everything that increases biomass production (intense aeration, stirring, sufficient lipid etc.) […]

Enjoying a Beer

Enjoying a Beer By Moritz Kallmeyer Chief Brewer of Drayman’s  Craftbrewery & Distillery, Silverton Pretoria,  July 2006. Nowadays I usually only have one 500ml beer per day (got to leave space for a wee dram later the evening) and I therefore aim to maximize the pleasure of that beer. The enjoyment of the beer for […]

Yeast Autolysis

Yeast Autolysis By Moritz Kallmeyer Chief Brewer Drayman’s Craftbrewery, Silverton Pretoria, March 2005 Introduction: The more I know about yeast, the more I realize I need to know more about yeast! Any excess over need results in the formation of food reserves in the form of carbohydrates or fat. When given access to a plentiful […]

Dry Yeast Rehydration, it’s critical!

Dry Yeast Rehydration, it’s critical! By Moritz Kallmeyer Chief Brewer Drayman’s Craftbrewery, Silverton Pretoria, March 2005 Each brand of ADY (active dry yeast) specify its own optimum rehydration temperature, ranging from 35°C to 40°C. As you drop the strike temp from 40°C to 15°C the yeast will leach out progressively more of its insides, damaging […]

To Mash or not to Mash Kurz/Hoch

To Mash or not to Mash Kurz / Hoch By Moritz Kallmeyer Chief Brewer of Drayman’s Craftbrewery, Silverton Pretoria, October 2004 Introduction The Kurz /Hoch method of mashing was recently advocated when both studies at Weihenstephan State University and reports by Michael J. Lewis and Tom W. Young (Brewing, Second edition, p.244) confirmed the following: […]

Making Sense of FAN (free amino nitrogen)

Making Sense of FAN (free amino nitrogen) By Moritz Kallmeyer Chief Brewer Drayman’s Craftbrewery, Silverton Pretoria, June 2004 For yeast cell multiplication the yeast requires a source of nitrogen to form amino acids and nucleotides so that proteins, nucleic acids and co-enzymes can be formed. Yeast can remove the amino group from any one amino […]

Yeast Slurry pH as an indicator of yeast Autolysis

Yeast Slurry pH as an indicator of yeast Autolysis By Moritz Kallmeyer Chief Brewer Drayman’s Craftbrewery, Silverton Pretoria, January 2004 At the end of fermentation, beer pH is usually between 4.1 and 4.40. An increase in stored yeast slurry pH above this end of ferment beer pH is a good indicator of yeast autolysis. Protease’s […]

The Do’s and Don’ts of Yeast Handling

The Do’s and Don’ts of Yeast Handling By Moritz Kallmeyer Chief Brewer Drayman’s Craftbrewery, Silverton, Pretoria, November 2003 The aim of this article is to discuss improved methods of yeast handling in a brewery to ensure good yeast health and optimum fermentation performance. Introduction The reality in most craftbreweries is that brewers don’t handle their […]

Tasting of Beer

Tasting of Beer By Moritz Kallmeyer Chief Brewer of Drayman’s Craftbrewery, Silverton Pretoria, March 2003 Introduction: After an exercise session your brain secretes endorphins – a powerful hormone like chemical that leaves you with a sense of euphoria / well being. So powerful is our sense of taste and smell that it can in an […]

Brewery Bacterial Contaminants

Brewery Bacterial Contaminants By Moritz Kallmeyer Chief Brewer of Drayman’s Craftbrewery, Silverton Pretoria, January 2004 Bacterial cells are the oldest inhabitants of planet earth. Rocks which were found by geologists in the Baberton area, timedated to be 380 million years old, showed the familiar rod shaped bacterial cells clearly when examined under a craftscope. Bacterial […]

A few beer faults and their origin – in a nutshell

A Few Beer Faults and Their Origin – in a nutshell By Moritz Kallmeyer Chief Brewer Drayman’s Craftbrewery, Silverton Pretoria, January 2003 Roughness: Abnormal water composition, insufficient boil, excess tannin, excessive or alkaline sparging, insufficient kettle evaporation, hot-side aeration. Fruity aroma /flavour: From esters, higher alcohols, acetates of higher alcohols. The consequence of under oxygenation […]

13 Health Reasons To Drink Beer

13 Health Reasons To Drink Beer By Moritz Kallmeyer Chief Brewer of Drayman’s Craftbrewery, Silverton Pretoria, February 2003 Introduction Medical studies have over the years consistently demonstrated that moderate consumption of beer can be part of a healthy lifestyle. Drinking beer is good for your liver! Drinkers of beer can get rid of poisonous heavy […]

The Role of Polyphenols in Beer Haze Formation

The Role of Polyphenols in Beer Haze Formation By Moritz Kallmeyer Chief Brewer Drayman’s Craftbrewery, Silverton Pretoria, February 2003 Abstract: Phenolic compounds are present in all vegetable foods. Polyphenols are extracts of various plants which have the ability to react with protein in animal skins to produce leather. Tannins are polyphenols and nowadays the term […]

Hangovers and “hanging overs”

HANGOVERS AND “HANGING OVERS” By Moritz Kallmeyer Chief Brewer of Drayman’s Craftbrewery, Silverton Pretoria, March 2003 I think that the over 40 year old section of the population experience less hangovers than the rest. In my own case, it comes with the collective recollection of all previous over- drinking bouts and how terrible you can […]